《耶路撒冷》:每个人心中都有一座自己的“耶路撒冷”

2019-03-19 消息来源:中国文化译研网     原作者:

编者按:为了更好地进行中国文学海外传播工作,让中国作品在海外被发现(Discover)、被理解(Understand)、被传播(Express),中国文化译研网(CCTSS)邀请国内资深文学主编及文学评论家,精选出近两百部短中长篇小说,形成第一期《中国当代文学作品指南》(简称“指南”),从更具权威性、价值性的角度出发,更好地向世界展示中国当代文学精品,传播中国书香。


春读书,兴味长,磨其砚,笔花香。现将“指南”中的精品文学作品以一日一推的方式向读者呈现,让我们不负春日好时光。


耶路撒冷

Jerusalem

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推荐理由


《耶路撒冷》写了平初阳、杨杰、易长安、秦福小等几位年轻人离开故乡花街到北京,又重回花街相聚的故事。他们的欢笑、挣扎、血泪,都在作者细腻的描摹下,淋漓尽致展现出来。


小说将故乡旧事和北京现实穿插描述,借几位年轻人的经历,书写了70后一代人的精神历史。与此同时,花街上人物几十年的变迁也随之呈现,时间甚至上溯到解放初期和文革,因此,这又是一部花街的历史,折射出江南村庄由传统向现代过渡的历程。


作品主人公初平阳是北大博士,也是一位善于观察和思考的知识分子,他的人文关怀和哲学背景,使这部作品具有思想深度。小说的每节后面,都附有初平阳为专栏《我们这一代》的写的文章,与正文照应,产生了互文的效果。


耶路撒冷的宗教意味,与主人公的沉郁心境结合,也使作品带有象征意义,指向探寻生命终结奥义的空间。


Reviews


Jerusalem is a story about several young people Chu Pingyang, Yang Jie, Yi Chang’an and Qin Fuxiao who left their hometown in Huajie Street for Beijing, and ultimately come back for a reunion. Their joy and sorrow, as well as struggle are depicted to a nicety.


In the novel, the past events of their hometown and the current events in Beijing occur concurrently. The life stories of several young people represent the spirits and ethos of a whole generation born in the 1970s. Meanwhile, the story also presents the vicissitudes of many Huajie Street residents’ lives in the past decades, dating even back to the beginning of the founding of the PRC and the “Cultural Revolution.” The novel is also about history of Huajie Street and the embodiment of the southern village’s transition from a traditional era to contemporary days.


Chu Pingyang, the hero of the novel, has a PhD degree from Peking University. He is a good observer and thinker. His concern for ordinary people and philosophical thinking lends depth to the story. After every chapter of the novel, each of Chu’s essays for the column “Our Generation” is annexed as a contrast to the main body, giving the feeling of intertextuality.


The novel is highly symbolic with a combination of Jerusalem’s religious overtones and the hero’s depressed mood, pointing to the exploration of life’s ultimate meaning. 


作家简介

Author Profile

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徐则臣,1978 年出生于江苏东海,北京大学中文系硕士毕业,曾于 2009 年赴美国克瑞顿大学 (Creighton University) 做驻校作家,2010 年参加美国爱荷华大学国际写作计划(IWP),现为《人民文学》杂志社编辑。他的作品被认为“标示出了一个人在青年时代达到的灵魂眼界”。短篇小说《如果大雪封门》荣获第六届鲁迅文学奖。2014 年凭借《耶路撒冷》获得老舍文学奖,并且在 2015 年提名第九届茅盾文学奖。另外,他著有长篇小说《午夜之门》《夜火车》,中短篇小说集《鸭子是怎样飞上天的》等,部分作品已被翻译成德、英、日、韩、意、蒙、荷、俄、西等多种语言。


Xu Zechen, born in 1978 in Donghai, Jiangsu, obtained a master’s degree in Chinese Language and Literature at Peking University, and is now an editor at People’s Literature magazine. In 2009 he went to Creighton University as an author-in-resident, and in 2010 he took part in the University of Iowa’s International Writing Program (IWP).


His works have been deemed as “managing to identify exceptional vision and outlook of a young writer”. His short story If a Snowstorm Seals the Door was awarded the 6th Lu Xun Literature Prize. In 2014 he was awarded Lao She Literature Prize for his outstanding work Jerusalem and in 2015 he was nominated for the 9th Mao Dun Literature Prize. He has published the novels Midnight’s Door and Night Train, and a collection of short stories and novellas entitled How Geese Fly up to Heaven. Some of his works have been translated into German, English, Japanese, Korean, Italian, Mongolian, Dutch, Russian and Spanish. 


中文概要

Synopsis

初平阳坐火车从北京回家乡淮海,还差半小时到站时,遇到紧急停车。初平阳回来主要目的是筹备留学耶路撒冷的费用,他的父亲初医生也到其他城市行医了,因此,全家决定卖掉的花街的“大和堂”药店。花街的傻子铜钱比初平阳大四岁,小时候脑子被猪踢过,他去拦火车,想“到世界去”。这句话击中了初平阳,因为他正给报纸写“我们这一代”专栏,由此得到了灵感。

《到世界去》写到,一个傻子,不知道世界是什么,但是他想到世界去。村子都空了,花街的年轻人都到城里打工去了。虽然很担心,父母还是支持初平阳留学,他太喜欢耶路撒冷这个名字。

初平阳研究生毕业后在家乡大学工作,因为不满意学校琐碎的要求而辞职考上了北大读博。这次回到家乡,想起了前女友舒袖,她有一双漂亮的眼睛,现在,已经是一岁孩子的妈妈。舒袖带着儿子平原来见初平阳,她看过初平阳的所有文章,两人做爱,但已回不到以前。正像初平阳在一篇文章中写的,爱情的确是个问题,一半是海水,一半是火焰。

为了建设虚构的名妓翠宝宝的纪念馆,大搞拆迁,易培卿坚决不同意搬走。初平阳参加了“回忆者俱乐部”的活动,写了《这么早就开始回忆了》。

秦福小在北京住地下室,开电梯,经过初平阳介绍,收养了一个孤儿,取名天送。他的父亲景侉子是倒插门女婿,渴望延续后代,生了秦福小后又有了儿子景天赐。秦福小目睹弟弟拿刀片划开动脉自杀。在北京,秦福小有追求者,但她不为所动,决定告别北京回家乡。

杨杰以前在部队当兵,养过猪,现在在北京做水晶生意,是不大不小的老板。他曾经听信风水大师的话,把名字改来改去。后来忽然醒悟,认为返璞归真和顺其自然才是正道。他特意叫上司机,开车送秦福小和天送返回淮海。

初平阳得到妻子怀孕的消息,正逢参观地震废墟,他生平第一次喝醉,并把感悟《第三十九个平安夜》作为了讲学的内容。

以色列耶路撒冷希伯来大学的雅各布·塞缪尔教授的父亲曾居住上海,1942 年以色列建国后才离开。来到上海,初平阳做他的翻译,并陪伴他寻找父亲的踪迹。

最早知道耶路撒冷是九岁的时候,有天初平阳跟杨杰、易长安偶然发现秦环奶奶在废弃的教堂诵经,提到了这个词。文革时期,前妓女秦环是批判的主要对象,因为曾被沙教士救过命,皈依了基督教。景天赐因为还在吃奶,遭到同学羞辱,用刀片自杀。初平阳很害怕,看到出血的场景逃跑了,耽误了施救机会,这成为他内心背负的十字架。

杨杰一行开车回到淮海,妻子崔晓萱也带着女儿坐飞机赶到了。杨杰母亲姓李,大家叫她“李老师”,曾是北京知青,下乡后拼命干活,后来嫁给杨木匠,留在了当地。她后来被怀疑不是北京人,因为寄往北京的信都是白纸,探亲时也不回北京,而是到外地游玩。儿子杨杰去北京发展,她听到后说“好,给妈找个北京姑娘”。崔晓萱和杨杰生气,因为他对秦福小照顾太多。杨杰讲了倒卖水晶,依靠坚持和聪明活络,终于赚得第一桶金的往事。

初平阳去看住院的朋友吕东。吕东的母亲和妻子都很强势,给他造成很大压力。妻子说吕东精神有问题,把他送进了医院,还跟他离了婚。易长安神出鬼没,经常换手机号,还用初平阳等人的名字开了银行户头。易长安为盗窃团伙办假证,事发,开始逃亡。去了几个城市后,他也回到了淮海。舒袖的丈夫周至诚找到初平阳,说要出双倍的价钱,购买“大和堂”。周至诚、初平阳两人拼起了酒。

初平阳和杨杰去火车站接易长安,到了后得知火车晚点。错车时发现易长安坐在警车上。易长安在教初中的时候,工资经常被克扣,而校领导却拿公款吃喝。易长安拿到校方补发的工资,辞职去了北京。在警局,初平阳和杨杰见到了易长安,易长安交代了捐款和帮助父亲出书等事项。

初平阳这期的稿子的主题是《2019》,写十年后的大家。他把房子卖给了秦福小,一起去房产交易所办过户手续。去看吕冬时,初平阳说出了自己去耶路撒冷的原因,因为它是有象征意味的寓所,有信仰、精神的出路和人之初的心安。偶然间,初平阳找到了《2019》的第一句话:“掉在地上的都要捡起来”。


Chu Pingyang returns from Beijing to his hometown Huaihai by train in the hope of being able to raise enough money to study in Jerusalem. His family decides to sell the Dahetang Pharmacy in Huajie Street to finance him, as his father Dr. Chu has already moved to city to practice medicine. On his way home, an emergency stop occurs when Chu’s train is just half an hour from its destination. The train was stopped by Tongqian a fool, four years Chu’s senior, from Huajie Street. Tongqian became a fool after he had been kicked in the head by a pig as a young boy. Tongqian stopped the train and uttered that he wanted to “go to the world.” Hit by that utterance, Chu actually draws some inspiration from it as he is writing a column named “Our Generation” for a newspaper.


In Go to the World, Chu writes: A fool wants to go to the world, even though he doesn’t know what on earth the world is. Chu finds the village almost empty because most young people in Huajie Street have gone to city for work. Chu loves the name Jerusalem so dearly and is glad to learn that his parents support his decision to study in that far-flung city in spite of their worries.


After obtaining his master’s degree, Chu first works at a university in his hometown. He soon quits the exacting job and goes on pursuing a PhD degree at Peking University. Chu returns home and recalls his ex-girlfriend Shu Xiu, who has beautiful eyes and now is a mother to a one-year-old boy. Shu Xiu has read all the works Chu publishes and comes to see him with her son. They make love, but find themselves unable to get back to where they were. As Chu writes in one of his works, love is indeed a problem. Half of it is ocean, and the other half is flame.


Massive relocation is underway, only to build a memorial hall to Cui Baobao, a famous imaginary courtesan. But a resident Yi Peiqing refuses to move away. Chu participates in an event held by the “Reminiscent Club” and writes an essay entitled Feel Reminiscent so Early.


Qin Fuxiao, an elevator operator living in a basement in Beijing, adopts an orphan with the help of Chu and names the kid Tiansong. Qin Fuxiao’s father Jing Kuazi, a man living with his wife’s family, has longed for male offspring. First, Jing Kuazi’s wife gave birth to Qin Fuxiao. Later, their son named Jing Tianci was born. Unfortunately, Qin Fuxiao witnessed her brother commit suicide by slitting his wrists. Qin Fuxiao is untouched by her suitor in Beijing and decides to leave Beijing for her hometown.


Yang Jie, a former soldier and pig breeder, is now an ordinary crystal businessman in Beijing. He has changed his name several times following the advice of geomancy masters. One day he suddenly comes to realize that the right way is to return to simplicity and let nature take its courses. Yang’s driver drives him, Qin Fuxiao and Tiansong back to Huaihai.


Chu is visiting the earthquake rubble when he learns of his wife’s pregnancy. He gets drunk for the first time in his life and gives a lecture on his thoughts about The 39th Christmas Eve.


Professor Jacob Samuel of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem arrives in Shanghai. His father once lived in Shanghai and left the city after Israel was founded in 1942. During his trip to Shanghai, Chu translates for him and helps him as he is searching for the marks left behind by his father.


Chu got to know Jerusalem for the first time when he was only 9 years old. Back then, Chu, Yang Jie and Yi Chang’an unexpected one day found a granny, Qin Huan, reciting the Bible in an abandoned church. In her reciting, she mentioned the word Jerusalem. During the “Cultural Revolution,” Qin Huan, a former prostitute was the prime target for harsh criticism. She later converted to Christianity because Reverend Sha had saved her life. Jing Tianci was humiliated and bullied by his classmates because he was still breast-fed, and then committed suicide by slitting his wrists. Chu was terrified at the sight of the blood and escaped. As a result, Jing Tianci was unable to receive first aid in time and died. This incident later became too heavy a cross for Chu to bear and kept on haunting him.


As Yang Jie is on his way back to Huaihai with his driver, Qin Fuxiao, his wife Cui Xiaoxuan and daughter have already returned there by plane. Yang Jie’s mother, a teacher referred to as “Ms Li,” was sent to work in the countryside as an “educated youth” in Beijing. She worked very hard in the village and later married a local carpenter. Then she settled down there in the village. She was later suspected of pretending to be Beijinger, as all the letters she had sent to Beijing proved to be pieces of blank paper and she never went back to Beijing but only traveled to some other places during the family-visiting leaves. When her son Yang Jie decided to seek a career in Beijing, she said to him: Good! Marry a Beijing girl, just for the sake of your mother! Cui Xiaoxuan was angry with Yang Jie, for he had taken too much care of Qin Fuxiao. Yang Jie shares his personal story of how he earned his “first bucket of gold” by reselling crystal through virtue of his perseverance, smartness and flexibility.


Chu visits his friend Lü Dong in hospital. Lü Dong’s mother and wife are both very aggressive, making him feel so pressured. His wife claimed that he is mentally ill, hospitalizing him and then divorcing him. Yi Chang’an often disappears for a while and changes his phone number quite frequently. He has also opened a bank account under the name of Chu. It turns out that Yi Chang’an was making fake certificates for thieves. Yi becomes a fugitive after his illegal acts come to light. He finally returns to Huaihai after fleeing through several other cities. Shu Xiu’s husband Zhou Zhicheng doubles Chu the price for Dahetang Pharmacy. Zhou Zhicheng and Chu then drink together. 


Chu and Yang Jie head for the train station to pick up Yi, only to learn that the train is running late. But they unexpectedly find Yi in a police car. While Yi was teaching in a middle school, his wages were often docked while the school management embezzled public funds for dining. After receiving his delayed wages from the school, Yi resigned and went to Beijing. At the police station, Chu and Yang Jie meet Yi, who tells them about his plan to donate money and publish a book for his father. 


The title of his column is 2019, a story of everyone in 10 years time. Chu sells his house to Qin Fuxiao and they go to Real Estate Transaction Authority to handle ownership transfer formalities. When visiting Lü Dong, Chu tells him why he is so determined to go to Jerusalem. Chu believes Jerusalem is a symbolic dwelling blessed with the pathway to belief and man’s inner peace. Chu discovered the first sentence of 2019 by accident: All that falls on the ground must be picked up.

责任编辑:罗雨静

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